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'Practical World' True News Magazine by American Road Radio
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Health,True News :Is the drug to protect the stomach a real cause of depression for the patients?

Stomach acid drugs may cause depression.

A new study — now published in the journal Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics — has found a link between a common class of stomach drugs called proton pump inhibitors and depression. The researchers suggest that the pills might lead to major depressive disorder by disrupting the gut's bacteria.

Stomach acid drugs may cause depression

More and more studies are now pointing to the numerous ways in which our gut bacteria may influence both our mental and emotional well-being.
For instance, researchers have found that germ-free mice that had been deprived of beneficial gut bacteria displayed symptoms of anxiety, depression, and cognitive impairment.
Since the bacteria in our gut can alter the function of our brain by producing certain hormones or neurotransmitters — and emotional responses can, in turn, affect our gut bacteria — it should come as no surprise that some studies have found a link between post-traumatic stress disorder and certain strains of bacteria.

Other studies have not only pinpointed specific bacteria whose absence can trigger symptoms of depression in rodents, but they have also shown that supplementing said bacteria can reverse signs of depression.
Now, an observational study suggests that proton pump inhibitors — which are a class of drugs typically prescribed to treat acid-related stomach conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease — increase the risk of developing major depressive disorder.
This is the leading cause of disability both in the United States and worldwide.
The first author of the new study is Wei-Sheng Huang, from the Department of Psychiatry at the Taipei Veterans General Hospital in Taiwan.
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Stomach acid pills may disrupt gut-brain axis

Huang and team examined data on 2,366 individuals who had been taking proton pump inhibitors and went on to develop depression, and compared them with 9,464 people who also took the drugs but did not develop depression.

The latter group of participants was "matched for age, sex, enrollment time, end point time, and follow-up period."

The researchers applied logistic regression analysis and adjusted for various demographic factors, as well as for psychiatric comorbidities such as anxiety and substance abuse disorders.

The study revealed that, compared with those who did not develop major depressive disorder, "patients with major depression had a greater prevalence of higher cumulative defined daily dose" of proton pump inhibitors.

Specifically, the risk of clinical depression increased for those who took the drugs pantoprazole, lansoprazole, and rabeprazole, while in those who used omeprazole and esomeprazole, "only a trend significance was noted."

"To our knowledge," write the study authors, "this was the first study to investigate the association between [proton pump inhibitor] exposure and the risk of major depression."

While the mechanisms behind such an association remain mysterious, the authors venture a couple of possible explanations.

The drugs might raise depression risk by dysregulating the gut-brain axis, they suggest, or by preventing the organism from properly absorbing nutrients after the use of stomach drugs.

Still, the researchers caution that physicians should continue to prescribe the drugs as and when needed, bearing in mind the range of side effects that these drugs may have — which include pneumonia, bone fracture, and gastrointestinal infections.

Huang and team recommend that future studies investigate the pathophysiology behind the association they found.
Stomach acid drugs linked to chronic kidney disease.
Taking a class of drugs commonly used to reduce acid in the stomach is linked to a higher risk of developing chronic kidney disease, compared with not taking them.

This was the finding of a new study led by the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, MD, and published in JAMA Internal Medicine.

However, the authors also point out that finding a link between use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and chronic kidney disease does not prove the drugs actually cause the disease - that is for further studies to establish.

It could be, they suggest, that the participants who were prescribed PPIs may have been at higher risk of chronic kidney disease for reasons unrelated to their PPI use.

However, the researchers also note that previous studies have linked use of PPIs to a form of kidney inflammation called acute interstitial nephritis.

PPIs are among the most commonly used drugs worldwide. They are used to relieve symptoms of acid reflux and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). They are also prescribed for treating peptic or stomach ulcers and damage to the lower esophagus caused by acid reflux.

PPIs work by reducing the amount of stomach acid made by cells in the lining of the stomach. They are not the same as antacids, which work by neutralizing excess acid after it has entered the stomach.

There are many types and brands of PPI; examples include omeprazole (brand name Prilosec, also available without a prescription), esomeprazole (Nexium) and lansoprazole (Prevacid). The side effects vary from drug to drug.

In an accompanying editorial article - where they summarize recent evidence on the adverse effects of taking PPIs - Drs. Adam Jacob Schoenfeld and Deborah Grad, of the University of California-San Francisco, note that:

"A large number of patients are taking PPIs for no clear reason - often remote symptoms of dyspepsia or 'heartburn' that have since resolved."
10-year risk of kidney disease higher for PPI users

For their study, the Johns Hopkins researchers and their colleagues first analyzed data on 10,482 participants followed up for a median of nearly 14 years in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.

Fast facts about acid reflux

  1. Acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux (GER), happens when stomach contents come back up into the esophagus
  2. It is felt as heartburn when stomach acid touches the lining of the esophagus
  3. A more serious, persistent form - gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) - affects about 20% of the US population.
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